Newcastle Numismatic Society Inc
|Posted on April 5, 2021 at 8:05 AM||comments (5960)|
Our monthly meeting s are now back at Adamstown Senior Citizen Hall from April 7th 2021
|Posted on June 6, 2019 at 7:20 PM||comments (3005)|
Due to the Indian influence from around 200BC Malacca grew during the 15th century to be the capital of trade. The Portuguese captured it in 1511 and it became the major trading outpost of Asia. The Dutch acquired Malacca from 1641. During the 18th century the Dutch turned their attention to more profitable trade in Java and the Spice Islands. Dutch influence was weakened by the arrival of the British, who acquired Penang Island in 1786, Malacca in 1795 and Singapore 1824. In 1826 the British combined the territories of Singapore, Penang and Malacca and called them the Straits Settlements. The colony was administered by the East India Company until 1853 until it was abolished. The colony became a part of British India 1858—1867 at which time it became a crown colony. Singapore became a separate crown colony in 1946 when the Straits Settlements was dissolved.
British Borneo consists of two territories Sarawak and Sabah. Sarawak was a British colony governed by Rajah’s from 1841 –1946. the Japanese occupation during WWII so devastated the economy that Rajah Charles Vyrne Brooke ceded it to Great Britain in 1946. Sabah a former British protectorate and Crown Colony became an independent settlement of the Straits Colony in 1912 and incorporated with British North Borneo in 1946. The island of Labuam, 6 miles off the coast of Brunei was attached to the Singapore Settlement in 1907. Brunei remained an independent entity, while still using the currency.
Malaya consists of 11 States
• The un-federated Malay states of Johore, Kelantan, Kedah, Perlis and Trengganu
• The federated Malay states of Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor
• Former members of the Straits Settlements Penang and Malacca
Malaya & British Borneo, a currency commission named The board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya & British North Borneo was initiated 1 Jan 1952 for the purpose of providing a common currency for use in the Malay states and Northern Borneo and Brunei.
Malaysia came into being 16 Sept 1963 as a federation of Malaya. Singapore joined into the federation in 1963 but following two serious racial riots it withdrew from the federation of Malaysia in 1965 and became an independent republic.
|Posted on June 24, 2018 at 1:50 AM||comments (2342)|
The Maundy ceremony originates from the washing of the feet of the twelve Disciples by Jesus on the night before his crucifixion and the Mandatum left by Jesus: - ‘He took a towel and girded himself, took a basin of water and washed His Disciples’ feet saying after” I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.”’ Similar acts of humility have since been performed by monarchs and religious leaders in many countries throughout history.
The ceremony evolved in England to the present day ceremony. It developed from the washing of the feet of 12 poor people into a distribution of money, food and clothing, then to money only to the chosen people. The washing of the feet can be traced back to the 5th century performed after Holy Communion on Maundy Thursday. In time it became customary for the ruling monarch to perform the ceremony and, in addition to washing the feet of a number of poor people especially chosen, gifts of money, food and clothing were also made. In Tudor and earlier times queen-consorts gave their Maundy and it was normal for prelates, great noblemen and high officers of state to also distribute maundy, usually only to twelve people representing the twelve Disciples.
Recipients are chosen from among those who apply to the Royal Almonry for assistance, preference being given to those who have formerly been householders paying rates and taxes and who have been employers of labour. The general public may obtain tickets, so far as space allows, by application to the Royal Almonry. Along the centuries it became the custom to choose as many pensioners of each sex as the number of years in their age, also the kings and queens carried it further in that their monetary gifts consisted of as many pence as he or she had years. Henry IV is thought to be the sovereign who introduced this custom in 1562 and thus Queen Elizabeth will give eighty-four men and women apart from other cash, a purse containing eighty-four silver Maundy pence this year 2010. These coins are specially minted silver pieces, made up of 1d, 2d, 3d and 4d pieces.
After the washing of the feet gifts of money, food and clothing were also made. In 1724, owing to the female recipients being eager to see if the clothes they received fitted, created a disturbance, so a money allowance was given instead, although for a time material was given in lieu. The cost of getting this material made up into clothes was out of the pensioners reach so the material was replaced by the money value. In 1837 a money allowance replaced the gift of provisions in the forms of food and drink. The reason for this was that the provisions were often sold by the recipients for only a fraction of their cost. Another custom which came into use was the donation of the gown which the sovereign was wearing at the Maundy ceremony to the recipient considered to be the worthiest. Queen Mary used to give her best gown to the poorest and oldest recipient, but Elizabeth I was too vain to give up her lavishly bejeweled gowns so 20 shillings redemption money was, and still is given to each of the Maundy recipients instead. The practice of washing the feet was last performed by Charles II in 1685 (Charles I and previous sovereigns had refrained from observing the custom on occasion to avoid contracting plague). 1685 was also the last year until 1932 when the ruling monarch attended the ceremony. Subsequent ceremonies were attended by the Lord High Almoner or by other members of the Royal family. George V restored the custom personally attending in 1932.
At the ceremony two distributions are made. The First Distribution, instead of clothing white purses containing £2.25 (including a crown piece) is presented to the men and a green purse containing £1.75 is distributed to the women. In the Second Distribution each recipient received two purses. One is red with long white strings containing £2.50 (£1.50 is in lieu of food and 20/- for the redemption of the sovereign’s gown). The other is a white purse with long red strings and contains the gift of most interest – the sets of silver Maundy coins consisting of the same number of pence as the years in the sovereign’s age. These pence were current circulating hammered coinage until two years after Charles II’s restoration when specially minted sets of milled 1d, 2d, 3d and 4d pieces were used and with few exceptions have existed to this day.
Charles II 1660-1685
James II 1685-1688
William and Mary 1688-1694
William III 1694-1702
George I 1714-1727
George II 1727-1760
George III 1760-1820
George IV 1820-1830
William IV 1830-1837
Edward VII 1903-1910
George V 1910-1936
George VI 1936-1952
Elizabeth II 1952-
During the reign of Charles II the first two hammered issues bore no marks of value, but the third, a milled issue had Roman numerals to denote the requisite number of pence for each denomination. From 1670 to the end of the reign the reverse of all the coins were dated and the king’s initial “C” was interlinked to denote the value of the coins. He also established the custom whereby each of the sovereigns face in the reverse direction from the profile of their predecessor. From James II the reverse has always shown a crowned figure value. James II used Roman numerals and all his successors have preferred Arabic figures. George IV’s 3d had a smaller head than should be. The original die broke and there was no time to re engrave a die so the mint improvised with the die for the half groat.
With a few exceptions such as King John’s celebration at Rochester and Charles Is distribution by proxy at York Minster in 1639, money and gifts have always been presented at London. Until it was closed in 1890 the ceremony was held at the old Chapel Royal in Whitehall, then it moved to Westminster Abbey except for two occasions when it was closed in preparation for coronations and the ceremony was transferred to St Paul’s Cathedral. Queen Elizabeth II inaugurated the custom of allowing other places to share in this ancient and honourable custom and restricted the ceremony at Westminster to alternate years.
The fineness of silver used for the Maundy coins to 1920 was .925 when it was brought into line with the other silver coins issued to 50% silver 50% alloy. On the introduction of cupronickel in 1947 it was enacted that the Maundy coins should henceforth contain the old .925 standard silver.
Coin collectors were not so interested in the ceremony but in the coins that were used. In former days anyone could obtain a set of Maundy money by applying to his bank, but this greatly increased the number struck and hence depreciated their value as collector’s pieces. In 1909 the old people petitioned King Edward VII that this privilege be cancelled and so by the king’s express command only enough sets were to be minted for the old folk and the various officials taking part in the ceremony.
Maundy money is therefore, one of the world’s smallest issues of coins. The collector should always bear in mind the charitable purpose for which it is struck. However, the collector may obtain it, it comes from the hand of someone who has taken some part in the ceremony, if only as remotely as helping in the actual striking of the coins themselves. Maundy money is worthy of some respect. It is not lightly given, nor should it be lightly obtained.
|Posted on March 9, 2018 at 9:10 PM||comments (3158)|
1924 WINTER GAMES I CHAMONIX, FRANCE
17 nations sent 258 (247♂ 11♀) athletes to compete 16 events in 6 sports and 9 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 17 medals (4g-7s-6b)
1928 WINTER GAMES II ST MORITZ, SWITZERLAND
25 nations sent 464 (438♂ 26♀) athletes to compete 14 events in 6 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 15 medals (6g-4s-5b)
1932 WINTER GAMES III LAKE PLACID, USA
17 nations sent 252 (231♂ 21♀) athletes to compete 14 events in 4 sports and 7 disciplines
Top ranking nation was USA with 12 medals (6g-4s-2b)
1936 WINTER GAMES IV GARMISCH-PARTENKIRCHEN, GERMANY
28 nations sent 646 (566♂ 80♀) athletes to compete 17 events in 6 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 15 medals (7g-5s-3b)
1948 WINTER GAMES V ST MORITZ, SWITZERLAND
28 nations sent 669 (592♂ 77♀) athletes to compete 16 events in 6 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 10 medals (4g-3s-3b)
1952 WINTER GAMES VI OSLO, NORWAY
30 nations sent 694 (584♂ 109♀) athletes to compete 22 events in 4 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 16 medals (7g-3s-6b)
1956 WINTER GAMES VII CORTINA d’ AMPEZZO , ITALY
32 nations sent 821 (687♂ 134♀) athletes to compete 24 events in 4 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 16 medals (7g-3s-6b)
1960 WINTER GAMES VIII SQUAW VALLEY, USA
30 nations sent 665 (521♂ 144♀) athletes to compete 27 events in 4 sports and 8 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 21 medals (7g-5s-9b)
1964 WINTER GAMES IX INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA
36 nations sent 1091 (892♂ 199♀) athletes to compete 34 events in 6 sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 25 medals (11g-8s-6b)
1968 WINTER GAMES X GRENOBLE, FRANCE
37 nations sent 1158 (687♂ 211♀) athletes to compete 35 events in 6sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 14 medals ( 6g-6s-2b)
1972 WINTER GAMES XI SAPPORO, JAPAN
35 nations sent 1006 (801♂ 205♀) athletes to compete 35 events in 6 sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 16 medals (8g-5s-3b)
1976 WINTER GAMES XII INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA
37 nations sent 1123 (892♂ 231♀) athletes to compete 37 events in 6 sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 27 medals (13g-6s-8b)
1980 WINTER GAMES XIII LAKE PLACID, USA
37 nations sent 1027 (840♂ 232♀) athletes to compete 38 events in 6 sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 22 medals (10g-6s-6b)
1984 WINTER GAMES XIV SARAJEVO, JUGOSLAVIA
49 nations sent 1272 (998♂ 274♀) athletes to compete 39 events in 6 sports and 10 disciplines
Top ranking nation was USSR with 29 medals
Memorable moment—Torvil and Dean’s Bolero Ice Dance
1988 WINTER GAMES XV CALGARY, CANADA
57 nations sent 1423 (1112♂ 301♀) athletes to compete 46 events in 6 sports and 9 disciplines
Top ranking nation was URS with 29 medals (11g-9s-9b)
1992 WINTER GAMES XVI ALBERTVILLE, FRANCE
64 nations sent 1801 ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 24 events in 6 sports and 12 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Germany with 26 medals (10g-10s-6b)
1994 WINTER GAMES XVII LILLENAMMER, NORWAY
67 nations sent 1737 ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 24 events in 6 sports and 12 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 26 medals (10g-11s-5b)
To separate the Summer and Winter Olympics by 2 years keeping each 4 years apart
Astralia’s first Winter Olympics medal—a bronze in the men’s 5000m short track relay speed skating
1998 WINTER GAMES XVIII NAGANO, JAPAN
72 nations sent 2108 ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 24 events in 7sports and 14 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Germany with 29 medals (12g-9s-8b)
Zali Steggal won a bronze in slalom
2002 WINTER GAMES XIX SALT LAKE CITY, USA
77 nations sent 2399 (1513♂ 886♀) athletes to compete 78 events in 7sports and 15 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 25 medals (13g-5s-7b)
2 gold medals to Australia - Steven Bradbury 1000m short track speed skating
Alisa Camplin aerials
2006 WINTER GAMES XX TORINO (TURIN), ITALY
80 nations sent 2508 (1548♂ 960♀) athletes to compete 84 events in 7 sports and 15 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Germany with 29 medals (11g-12s-6b)
Gold medal to Dale Begg-Smith men’s freestyle moguls
Silver to Alisa Camplin aerials
2010 WINTER GAMES XXI VANCOUVER CANADA
82 nations sent 2632 ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 86 events in 7 sports and 15 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Canada with 26 medals ( 14g-7s-5b)
Gold to Torah Bright women’s half –pipe snowboarding and Lydia Lassila aerial freestyle
Silver to Dale Begg-Smith moguls
2014 WINTER GAMES XXII SOCHI, RUSSIA
88 nations sent 2873 ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 98 events in 7 sports and 15 disciplines
Top ranking nation was Norway with 26 medals ( 11g-5s-10b)
2018 WINTER GAMES XXIII PYEONGCHANG, SOUTH KOREA
92 nations sent ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete 102 events in 7 sports and 15 disciplines
Top ranking nation was with medals ( g- s- b)
Four more disciplines will be demonstrated/trialled at these games - big air snowboarding;
Mixed doubles curling; mass start speed skating; mixed team alpine skiing.
2022 WINTER GAMES BEIJING, CHINA
nations sent ( ♂ ♀) athletes to compete events in sports and disciplines
Top ranking nation was with medals ( g- s- b)
WINTER OLYMPIC SPORTS AND DISCIPLINES
BOBSLEIGH 1924-1956 1964→
SKELETON 1928 1948 2002→
CURLING 1924 1998→
ICE HOCKEY 1924→
NORDIC SKIING Military Patrol 1924 1928D 1936D 1948D replaced by Biathlon 1960→
Cross Country 1924→
Nordic Combined 1924→ 10k individual normal hill
10k individual large hill
Team large hill
Ski Jumping 1924→
ALPINE SKIING 1936 Combined Downhill and Slalom
1948→ Separate Downhill and Slalom
1952→ Giant Slalom
1988→ Super Giant Slalom
FREESTYLE SKIING 1992→ Moguls
1992→ Ski cross
SNOWBOARDING 1998→ Parallel
1998→ Half Pipe
1998→ Snowboard Cross
SKATING FIGURE 1924→ ((Also competed in 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics)
SPEED SKATING 1924→
1992→ Short track speed skating
|Posted on March 9, 2018 at 9:05 PM||comments (704)|
Commonwealth Games By AM
In July 1881 the Rev. J. Astley Cooper wrote an article in the magazine Great Britain advocating a ‘Pan-Britannic Festival’ featuring military, literary and sporting activities. After some initial debate, the idea was forgotten until a Festival of Empire was held in 1911 at the Crystal Palace in London to commemorate the coronation of King George V. One of the features of the programme was an Empire sports meeting in which competitors from Britain, Australia and New Zealand, Canada and South Africa competed. Richard Coombes, who was managing the combined Australian and New Zealand team at the festival, strongly advocated the idea of regular Empire Games, but it was not adopted until after the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics. Here the friendship between the Empire athletes revived ideas of holding Empire sports contests. It was largely through the initiative of M. M. Robinson, manager of the Canadian team that the British Empire Games took definite shape in the form of a meeting at Hamilton, Canada in 1930.
At these games a British Empire Games Federation was mooted, and at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics further discussions resulted in the foundation of this Federation. The Empire meeting of athletes is designed on the Olympic model and is held every four years during the interval between Olympiads. The organising control is vested in the British Empire and Commonwealth Games Association of the host country. The technical control of the competitive events is in the hands of the national controlling unions of the various sports on the programme. The Games are open only to amateurs, as defined by the international federations governing the various sports, and participants must be British subjects, either born in the country they represent or having resided there for six months before the closing of entries. The Games can be contested by nations or dependencies that have severed ties with Britain. All remain members of the Games Association. Some 73 nations have competed in these games, Britain itself split up and is represented by teams from England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey. Below is a list of participating nations / dependencies over previous games
Aden Anguilla Antigua & Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh
Barbados Belize Bermuda Botswana British Virgin Is Brunei
Cameroon Canada Cayman Is Cook Island Cyprus Dominica
England Falkland Is Fiji Gambia Ghana Gibraltar
Grenada Guyana Hong Kong India Isle of Man Jamaica
Jersey Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaya
Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Montserrat Mozambique
Namibia Nauru Newfoundland New Zealand Nigeria Niue
Norfolk Is Northern Ireland Pakistan Papua New Guinea St Helena St Kitts and Nevis
St Lucia St Vincent & Grenadines Sabah Scotland Seychelles Sierra Leone
Singapore Solomon Is South Africa South Arabia Sri Lanka Swaziland
Tanzania Tonga Trinidad & Tobago Turks & Caicos Is Tuvalu Uganda
Vanuatu Wales Western Samoa Zambia Zimbabwe
The first Games were held at Hamilton, Canada, in 1930 and they have been held every four years since then, except during WWII. The games have changed names three times :Empire games between 1930 and1950, to Empire and Commonwealth Games, from 1954 to 1966, and finally to Commonwealth Games since 1970. The host nation decides on the sports to be included. Team sports were not permitted.
The host nation has to set a programme of sports from an approved list of core sports and optional sports. They are allowed a minimum of 10 core sports and a maximum of 17 overall. The core sports are Aquatics (Swimming); Aquatics (Swimming Para); Athletics; Athletics (Para); Badminton; Boxing; Cycling (Road); Gymnastics (Artistic); Hockey; Judo; Lawn Bowls; Lawn bowls (Para); Netball (women only); Rugby Sevens; Squash; Table Tennis; Triathlon; Weightlifting; Powerlifting (Para); Wrestling (Freestyle). Quota positions shall be established for each compulsory sport. The total number of quota positions for compulsory sports (disciplines) shall not exceed 3,800 athletes. The host nation may also select optional sports (disciplines) from the approved list : Aquatics (Diving); Aquatics (Water Polo); Aquatics (Open Water Swimming); Archery (Recurve); Basketball 3x3; Basketball (Wheelchair Para 3x3); Canoe; Cricket; Cycling (Mountain Bike); Cycling (Track); Cycling (Track Para); Gymnastics (Rhythmic); Fencing; Sailing; Shooting (Clay Target); Shooting (Full Bore); Shooting (Pistol); Shooting (Small Bore); Softball; Table Tennis (Para); Taekwondo; Tennis; Ten Pin Bowling; Volleyball (Beach); Wrestling (Greco-Roman). A minimum of 300 quota positions shall be devoted to Para sports including core and optional sports. Following approval of team sports there shall be no more than 4 team sports on a program
Aquatics (Swimming) 1930→ 2018
Aquatics (Swimming Para)
Athletics 1930→ 2018
Cycling (Road) 1934→
Gymnastics (Artistic) 1978 1990→
Judo 1990 2002 2014
Lawn Bowls 1930→ 2018
Lawn Bowls (Para)
Netball (♀) 1998→
Rugby Sevens ♂ 1998→ ♀ 2018
Squash 1998→ 2018
Table Tennis 2002→ 2018
Triathlon 2002 2006 2014 2018
Weightlifting 1950→ 2018
Wrestling (Freestyle ♂) 1930-2002 2010→ 2018
Aquatics (Diving) 1930→
Aquatics (Swimming Open Water) app 2016
Aquatics (Synchronised Swimming ♀ 1986
Aquatics (Water Polo ♂) 1950 1954
Archery 1982 2010
Basketball 3x3 2002 2006 2014→ 2018
Basketball (Wheelchair Para 3x3)
Cycling (Mountain Bike)
Cycling (Track Para)
Fencing 1950-1962 1970
Gymnastics (Rhythmic ♀)
Rowing 1930 1938-1966 1978-1990
Shooting (Clay Target) 1966 1974→ 2018
Shooting (Full Bore)
Shooting (Small Bore)
Table Tennis (Para)
Taekwondo approved 2016
Ten Pin Bowling 1998
Wrestling (Greco-Roman ♂) 1930-2002 2010→
|Posted on October 15, 2017 at 3:30 AM||comments (1743)|
The Portuguese Republic is located in the western part of the Iberian Peninsular and has an area of 92080sq. km, its Capital is Lisbon.
After centuries of domination by Romans, Visigoths and Moors, Portugal emerged in the 12th century as an independent Kingdom ready to conquer the world.
Portugal’s Golden Age of colonialism
1394-1460 - Prince Henry the Navigator supported exploration, mapmaking, navigation and shipbuilding
1419-41 – Conti explored India, Burma, Annam and Java
1433 – Eannes explored West coast of Africa and claimed the Azores, Canaries, Madeiras
1455 – D Gomes Cape Verde Islands for Portugal
1470 – F Gomes
1482-6 – Cao discovered Congo and reached Namibia
1487-93 – Diaz reached the east coast of South Africa
1492 – Columbus reached America which started a dispute between Spain and Portugal over rights to trade and colonization in the Western Atlantic
1493 – A papal bull set a demarcation line but was not satisfactory so after further negotiations the Treaty of Tordesillas established a dividing line 370 leagues (2250km) west of the Cape Verde Islands with Portugal granted all east of the line (Africa and Asia) and Spain, west of the line granting it most of the Americas.
1498 – da Gama reached Abyssinia
1497-9 – da Gama reached Goa India by sea
1500 – Cabral claimed Brazil while reprovisioning on way to India. En route discovered Madagascar
1506 – Secotra occupied and Ceylon visited
1507 – Mauritius discovered
1507-15 – Alberquerque established the Empire of the East in nearly 13 years of voyaging and fighting. 1507 – Captured Ormuz 1510 – Goa 1511 Malacca Abreu and Serrao added Java, Ambon and Moluccas, Macau and Nagasaki were added. Alberquerque governed India from 1509 to 1515.
1521 – Magellan discovered and claimed the Philippines for Spain and reigniting negotiations which in 1529 the treaty of Zaragoza gave Portugal most of Asia and Spain most of the Pacific region.
The Colonies claimed were Brazil, Azores, Canaries, Madeiras, Cape Verde Islands, Congo, Portuguese Guinea, Mozambique, Angola, St Thomas & Prince Is, India – Goa (451years), Calicut, Cannanore, Co-Chin, Quilon, Bombay, Malaccas (Spice Islands), Macau (1557-_and Nagasaki (Japan). The Portuguese Overseas Territory was the largest and longest-lived empire in World History and the 10th largest by maximum land area of 10.4 million km sq. Portugal is only 92080 km sq. and the population was too small to colonize the vast territory so in less than a century after Portugal had laid claim to half the world, English, French and Dutch trading companies and Spanish, German, Italian and Communist powers had seized the lion’s share of the world’s colonies and commerce. Today Portugal only can lay claim to the territory of Macau covering 6 sq. miles at the tip of the Macau peninsula
Flowers on Coins
|Posted on September 7, 2013 at 8:00 PM||comments (1046)|
Flowers on coins
There are 59 different flower types’on125 coins from 43 countries. Some of the most interesting flower coins arethe Chad 500 franc reverse showing a native woman holding the flower of a palmtree. This is the only flora in the huge Sahara desert portion of Northern Chad.
The 5 korun reverse of oldCzechoslovak Republic depicts stylized building cranes with a star and ablooming flower symbolizing reconstruction. Jamaica has ackee fruit on their 1ccoin, lignum vitae on the 10c and the 25c shows a Doctor bird feeding onflowers. Italy has an old 10 centesimi coin reverse showing a bee over ahibiscus.
South Africahas many flower reverses featuring Aloe, Sugar Bush, Giant Protea, King Protea,Calla Lily, African lily and Strelitza. Sri Lanka has a flower on every coinbut it was hard to depict it. The badge on the obverse has a loin in the centreand this is surrounded by lotus petals.
Japanfeatures only three flowers on their many coins, the national flower the CherryBlossom, the Emperor’s Royal flower the Chrysanthemum and the royal flower ofthe Empress the Paualowina. The most prolific flower to appear on coins is theIris it appears on most coins as a finial in the monarch’s crown or in the coatof arms. This flower is better known by its common name the fleur-de-lis. It isalso the badge of the world Scouting movement and the national flower of France.
In Australiaall the coins have the Fleur-de-lis which appears in the crowns and the mace onthe reverse of the coins. Both the shields in the arms of the Victoria andQueensland contain a crown and these appear in the coat of arms of Australia onthe 1938 – 1963 2/-, 1937-38 5/-, 1977 Jubilee 50c, 2000 Royal Visit 50c, 2001Centenary of Federation, Queensland, Victoria, 2002 Accession Coronation, 2006Royal Visit and 2008 Scout $1 commemoratives.
Other flowersappearing on Australian Coins are the Rose, Thistle, Shamrock and Leek on theCivic crown on the obverse of the 1985-1991 coins and the rose as finials onthe obverse crown of all coins since 1999. The Rose of York appears in the baseof the shield of the 2001 ACT 50c. The Royal Bluebell appears on the 2001 ACT20c commemorative, the Waratah on the 2001 NSW commemorative, the Common Heathon the VIC 20c commemorative, Sturt’s Desert Pea on the 2001 SA 20c and 50 ccommemoratives and the Red and Green Kangaroo Paw on the 2001 WA 20c and 50c commemoratives.
Australia’snational flower the Golden Wattle appears in the 1977 Jubilee 50c and in thefield of the coat of arms on the 2001 Centenary of Federation 50c. Finally ared Poppy graces the reverse of the 2012 Remembrance $2 coin and NNS hasFleur-de-lis in the crown of our Jubilee medallion.
Security on Austalian Bank Notes
|Posted on August 18, 2013 at 9:40 PM||comments (581)|
|Posted on July 28, 2013 at 12:00 AM||comments (817)|
The new USA citizens used the bartersystem for the exchange of goods etc. There were no coins available except forvarious foreign coins such as the widely traded Spanish real dollars.
The newly signed constitution allowedcongress to coin money. The first Coinage Act was passed on the 2ndApril 1792, and established the United States Mint to oversee all mintoperations. The first employees included an engraver, an assayer and chiefcoiner. All employees by law had to post a $10,000 bond to be considered forthese positions. The first coins minted were: -
· $10gold eagle with 17.5g of pure gold
· $5gold half eagle with 8.75g of pure gold
· $2.50quarter eagle with 4.37gof standard gold
· $1dollar with 27g of pure silver
· HalfDollar with 13.5g of standard silver
· QuarterDollar with 6.74g of standard silver
· Dimes,spelled “dismes” until 1800’s had 2.7g of silver
· Halfdimes with 1.35g of standard silver
· Onecent with 17.1g of Copper
· HalfCent with8.55g of copper
The Treasury Seal that was developedremains even today.
In the 19th century thegold/silver ratio was altered to bring the value of the gold into sync with themarketplace and its relative value to silver. The 1834 Coin Act increased thevalue of gold, increasing the value of gold, increasing the ratio of gold/silverto about 1:16. In 1861 Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase was encouraged toinscribe “In God We Trust” on coins. Congress approved and it was first used onthe 2 cent coin of 1864. The inscription was expanded to gold and silver coinsand with the passage of the 1865 Act: all coins were approved with “in God Wetrust” without further Congressional approval.
The most significant event of the 20thcentury occurred because of the shortage of silver. Under President Johnson,the 1965 Coin Act was passed that eliminated silver from certain coins.Quarters and dimes saw the complete elimination of silver content and the halfdollar’s content was reduced from 90% to 40%. Silver was replaced with alloysof copper, zinc, manganese and nickel. All newly n=minted coins had a 1964 datefor a period of time. Mint marks were also eliminated for a period of fiveyears, serving to remove and identification features of the newer coins and to preventtheir removal from circulation.
Today in the United States the mintissues new coins fairly regularly. Occasionally special coins are issued as acommemorative or collector’s item. The Coin Act of 2005 saw commemorative coinsthat recognised all prior Presidents begin issue in 2007. Even though they arelegal tender they are not specifically meant for casual use.
WWII AUSTRALIAN RATION CARDS
|Posted on May 9, 2013 at 10:10 AM||comments (8853)|
WWII AUSTRALIAN RATION CARDS
In June 1942 the CommonwealthRationing Commission was set up to limit the waste of money and goods, thushelping Australia to support troops fighting abroad.
Petrol rationingwas introduced in October 1940, private cars were allowed enough petrol totravel about 25km a week. Charcoal burners were popular and household gas wasalso used to keep cars moving. When Japan entered the war in 1941 controlsbecame more severe and Australia moved to a total war economy.
John Dedman then Minister for WarOrganisation of Industry announced the rationing of Clothing and Footwear in1941. Sales in clothing shops would be restricted to 75% for 1941 and once theshop had reached its quota the sales had to be stopped for the day. Mass hysteriagripped the women as they rushed to the shops to buy cloths. The manufacture ofcloth was standardised to one thickness, sparking protests that the suits willbe too hot in Townsville and to cold in Hobart, to no avail. In July 1942 the‘victory suite’ was introduced – one style – a single breasted, two- buttoncoat with no buttons on the sleeves and cuffless trousers not more than 48cmwide. It cost 7 pound 7s ($422.50 in today’s money) and required 38 rationcoupons out of an annual allowance of 112 and was expected to last from 9-12months. Waistcoats and double-breasted coats were banned. After a protest thewaistcoat was added to the victory suite in December 1942. Women were advisedto substitute leg paint for stockings, the maximum length for a skirt wasfixed, dolman, balloon and leg-of-mutton sleeves were banned and belts couldnot be wider than the regulation 5cm. Because of the shortage of elastic,panties were to be substituted for bloomers.
Attempts were made to reduce spendingon drink by shortening hotel trading hour and reducing the production of beerand other alcohol products.
Tea wasrationed in July 1942, the limit being 8oz (226 gms) per person for 5 weeks.Coffee substitutes were sought and tobacco was in short supply.
Sugar rationingbegan in August 1942, 1lb weekly and each coupon got 2lb. The manufacture ofnon-essentials was prohibited. These included bath-heaters, lawn mowers, loungesuites and some other furniture, toys, dishwashing machines, men’s eveningwear, garters, suspenders, horse-racing equipment, swimsuits and pyjamas. InNSW pink icing on wedding cakes was prohibited and Christmas cakes werepermitted as long as they did not look like Christmas cake. Confectionary wasrationalised with 6474 varieties on the market being reduced to 80.Cigars wererationed, typewriters were controlled and export of pigeons was prohibited.
Meat rationing was introduced inJanuary 1944, each coupon 3/4lb A group or 1lb B group or 1 1/2lb C group or2lb D group. Some meats were not rationed e.g. poultry, ham, rabbits, bacon andfish. Cooked and preserved meats such as frankfurters, sausages, potted meatsham loaves and canned meat: offal such as tripe and tongue were also notrationed. Because of the complicated system most housewives gave the couponbook to the butcher and asked “what can I get?”
Rationing did not end with the warbut carried on for several years. Sugar rationing ended in1947, Meat andclothing in 1948, Butter and Tea in 1950, Petrol rationing ceased in June 1949but was reintroduced in November 1949 and finally ceased in February 1950.
|Posted on July 10, 2012 at 11:05 PM||comments (2487)|
Members! Do you know that we have an extensive Numismatic Library from which you can borrow?
|Posted on July 10, 2012 at 11:05 PM||comments (8700)|
A summary of the societys history is now available to members on USB stick or DVD.